Perspective an artist needs to know
Now begins the more technical aspect of Successful Drawing. In the following postings, I will still begin with a short written section, but the meat of the post will consist of scanned images of my versions of Loomis’ drawings. The drawings are direct copies of his works and lessons, and they were done to help me learn. I encourage you to do the lessons as well, and draw the samples -even if you feel you understand the concept. There is a truth revealed when you get actually down to drawing the exercises that is greater than an intellectual understanding only.
Loomis begins by encouraging us to be diligent and to practice. He tells us frankly:
The difficulties of not knowing are always much greater than the effort of learning.
A note about supplies:
Loomis advises us to proceed in the following way:
Mark Making media: He suggests that you use a pencil, but is quick to add that drawing is drawing in any medium, be it chalk, charcoal, crayons etc. He says to select the one you like best, but to avoid hard media or inks, as well as to avoid overly dark pencils as they are hard to erase.
Erasers: the kneaded eraser is best
Paper: large pads of layout bond paper are mentioned, but he is not specific -it does not matter, as long as the paper is not too thin and transparent.
Loomis adds at this point that in terms of technical use of the pencil to avoid scratchy, small and thin-lined strokes. He says such marks look amateurish and fussy.
In addition to the above mentioned, there is a need of a fairly large drawing table, a t-square and a right triangle in order to do the perspective exercises.
Since the 3 dimensional block is the primary shape everything fits into, Loomis begins with drawing the square. Drawing a perfect square is the first step to learning how to draw form in perspective.
Exercise I: the perfect square
- A perfect square has each of its sides of equal length. Draw one. To find the centre of a square or a rectangle, draw lines from opposing corners. To divide the square into quarters, draw a horizontal and a perpendicular through the centre point which the diagonals have revealed. From this many things will develop.
- To draw the 3-dimensional square in perspective (the cube) one must start by being able to draw the perfectly proportional square laying flat on an illusory plane created by the artist. This is easily done, and uses 2 Point Perspective, but there are a few things you need to know before that.
Exercise II: creating the illusion of space
- Looking at a blank paper is potential for space, but without anything for the viewer to comprehend, no illusion is created. Furthermore, to attempt to create the illusion of space and to misapply these fundamental laws of perspective will alert a viewer’s Intelligent Perception of falsity. Here is a blank paper and no illusion of space is apparent.
- The addition of a simple horizon line is the first step to creating the sense of space. Every drawing has a horizon whether the viewer can see it or not. The horizon line could also be considered the point where the viewer’s eye level rests.
- If one adds a simple recognizable object such as a tree, the illusion of space is developed further. By moving the trees closer to and further away from the horizon, the viewer’s eye level is changed by the artist. Changing the objects’ relation to the horizon gives the viewer the sense of flying above the trees or looking from below the trees.
- By making the trees smaller or larger, the artist creates the illusion of being nearer or further away from the subject matter.
- The final step to creating realistic simple perspective is the addition of a Vanishing Point to the horizon line. This point establishes where the artist wants the viewer to be situated outside of the picture. That is, when a Vanishing Point is properly used, the artist can show the viewer the desired perspective of his image
The Vanishing Point (V.P.) represents the place where the viewer’s power of sight is limited to. To understand the term ‘vanishing’, one must consider a scenario where a series of identical trees were lined up next to one another in a perfect row. The closest tree would appear the biggest, and the furthest tree away would get so small, it would vanish. The top and bottom lines drawn straight to the V.P. show how much smaller the artist needs to make the duplicate objects. Without regarding the top and bottom height lines, the artist will fail to create the illusion of depth. This is called One Point Perspective.
Now you are prepared for Two Point Perspective, which is the key to creating the 3-Dimensional cube, situated in space.