Light on Basic Forms

The third main section of Successful Drawing deals with the techniques artists use when rendering  light and shadow on the basic forms. (Please see my previous postings regarding how illustrators simplify the many organic shapes in nature, down into a handful of basic geometric shapes.)  Here again, Loomis articulates a principle of representational art which is easily overlooked when an artist is attempting to represent a subject.  He states that light and shadow are the phenomena which delineate what we call form.  Furthermore, he reminds the reader that the entirety of the visible world is light falling on form.  What our eyes perceive as a shape, or colour is actually the effect of light striking a 3-dimensional mass.  Comic artists who work in line are sometimes forgetful of this truth. Although line is a fine method of describing light on form, too often does the line-based illustrator become fixated on the particularites of design when drawing, rather than acknowledging that perceived form is actually a phenomena of light.

Next, Loomis indicates that Nature is too complex for any artist to memorize or even attempt to fully translate into a piece of representational art.  He reaffirms the aforementioned concept of relying on a system in order to understand the infinite variables found in Nature.  Frankly stated, Loomis indicates that one must simplify light and form.

To warm his readers up to the concept of form being a phenomena of light, Andrew Loomis considers the heavenly bodies in the solar system, drawing attention to the general shape of such bodies -the sphere.  When one imagines the full moon on a very clear night, generally the shape pictured in the mind’s eye is a white circle.  Yet, if you really look at the moon, you will see that there is actually a gradation of bright white to light grey on the mass.   The section which appears brightest, is that area of the Moon’s surface which is at right-angles to the Sun.    As a short hand rule, one can consider the highlight as the shortest distance between the lit surface and the light source.

This highlight curves around the face of the Moon, and diminishes in value to least amount of light, at a point 180 degrees opposite the highlight.  The shadow begins to form on the sphere where the light is at a tangent to the surface.  This phenomena of shadow always begins at the halfway point between the surface nearest to the light and the opposite face, which is furthest from the source.

Andrew Loomis provides for his readers a Set of Laws which can be pulled out as summative facts regarding Light on Form.

1.  LIGHT TRAVELS IN A STRAIGHT LINE.  This Law shows why a single light source is not able to reach more than halfway around any round form.
2. SURFACES ARE LIT AT ANGLES RELATIVE TO LIGHT.  This Law is meant to awaken the artist to the phenomena that any surface which is represented, is lighted according to the angle of its surface in relation to the direction of the light source.  When one begins to think in these terms, determining value is made accessible.
3. RIGHT ANGLES ARE BRIGHTEST.  Planes which are fully flat appear brightest, and on curving shapes, that piece of surface area which is at 90 degrees to the light source likewise appears brightest.
4. GRADATION = CURVING.  This law is easily forgotten when inventing value representation.  The curving plane is rendered with gradations of light to dark.  The flat plane is not.  The flat plane is lighted evenly, relative to its degree facing the light source.

This fourth Law is really the father of the others, and it is the secret of lighting.  To restate, flat planes are also flat in tone or value.  They appear even; even in colour and lacking variance.  Rounded masses on the other hand are described with modelling of value and gradation of tone.

Thank you for reading this week’s blog.  Next posting will go into a further consideration of the effects in value related to an object’s relative degree facing the light source.  See you in 7.

Weird Tales, Pulp Comic

Greetings True Believers!

When last we met, I was about to attempt to complete a comic in 30 days: write, pencil and ink…

well it was too much for me.

I just wasn’t able to ink fast enough to make the bootcamp deadline.  That being said, while pushing through my first Pulp-themed comic, me and  my co-plotter Donovan LeClair, conceived of another story plot, in the same universe as Ingretta.

The idea we developed was so interesting, that I decided (in true Pulp fashion) that this first issue should be a double sized release, featuring 2 stories written back to back.  As the idea unfolded, my Bootcamp idea became more elaborate, and I essentially doubled the scope of my work.  This was FAR more than I could complete in 30 days.

Although I have produced full comics before this 30 day attempt,  I have never produced an inked comic.  Frankly, I underestimated how long the inking would take me, and I am wiser now.

I am unpleased that I couldn’t meet my own deadline, but I am also glad that the I.P. which I am developing now has expanded, and the new material is sure to please my Pulp readers!  For this update blog, I am going to show you some more Work In Progress pages from Trial of Ingretta, and reveal the title for the new back-up story : “Cull of the Dead Gods!” featuring the supernatural detective Kip Stirling.  The script is being written concurrent to the writing of this blog, and I’ll likely start the artwork by mid June.

Enjoy these pages of ‘Trial of Ingretta’, and overlook the parts where bits of my drawings are missing… it is work in progress…

Bootcamp Comic

The Understanding Loomis blog is going to pause for the next 30 days.  Fortunately, regular blog entries are not going to be pausing though.

Today, I am embarking on a slightly different project which I will post about here, in order to keep track of the progress, and record the event.

I am taking on a project inspired by a series of Youtube videos produced by a man named David V. Stewart, and his colleague Matthew J. Wellman.

These men are authors of science fiction and fantasy, as well as deep fonts of knowledge and information regarding the aforementioned genres generally.  I have read one short selection from both authors, and the writing in both of their works is both engaging and well done. Their internet media content ranges from musings on Hollywood movies,  to technical considerations for writing novels, through political and philosophical commentaries, and even into music theory and practical instruction lessons.  They produce very intelligent Youtube videos as well as a podcast called “Writers of the Dawn”.

Their author sites on Amazon are here:

https://www.amazon.com/David-Stewart/e/B01H7K4GE6

https://www.amazon.com/Matthew-J-Wellman/e/B01LXA0A9P

In one of their presentations, they introduced a concept they called the “bootcamp” philosophy for writing a novel.  The idea is that given a constrained time frame, a person could be remarkably productive and achieve a single very large, set goal -despite the strain of working long hours.  The key of course being that the person acts rationally, and makes for themselves a schedule in which the goal is broken into manageable steps, constrained by time, and is something achievable relative to their abilities.

In this format, David V. Stewart was able to write a full novel, from conception to publishing in 30 days, which he did for National Write a Novel Month.

I became inspired greatly by these two authors, and have decided to complete a similar feat -to conceive of, script, pencil and ink a full comic in 30 days.  My wife suggested to not to try to do the lettering and colouring in that time frame, which after considering the rule of having the task be “achievable relative to one’s abilities”, I decided she was right.  I will colourize and letter it though, after the thirty days, then publish the comic.

In this blog, I will post the daily work I have done.  The script is original, and is called Strange Tales: The Trial of Ingretta.  It is going to be a pulp-style comic, set in 1928, with proto-nazi women warriors, ancient cities, prehistoric beasts and a giant ape who wears a crown of gold…  Here is page one!  Pencilled and inked by myself in one day.

This is Ingretta, and she and I are going to have a tough 30 days ahead.  Get to know her!!

Establishing a ‘Key Figure’ part III

Fashion Proportions

The previous two postings have been regarding how an illustrator sets up the proportional measurements of the human body by measuring the overall height in heads.  It was shown how using the “naturalistic” proportions of 7.5 heads -while true to life- produced an unappealing, dumpy figure.  The more attractive ‘idealized’ proportions of 8 heads stretched the figure out more, and the look became more attractive.  It was indicated that the ‘idealistic’ proportional measurements of 8 heads is used frequently in illustration.

Though the above statements are all true, domains do exist within the world of illustration where the aforementioned proportions will not suffice.  One such domain is fashion illustration, and another is comic book, or (more broadly considered) fantastic illustration.

The 8 head proportion method is only marginally stretched out from the ‘naturalistic’ proportions -indeed 8 heads tall is intended to appear natural to the viewer.  In fashion illustration or fantastic illustration, the artist is trying to render the human form as being ‘super’ i.e.  akin to superman.

The fantasy character or the fashion model needs to look even more exceptional as a specimen of anatomy than do figures in other general illustrations.  Therefore, the typical proportions used in these disciplines is 8.5 heads tall.

This change brings the halfway point of the figure’s height to be dropped down to the middle of the genitals, whereas in the previous proportion drawings show that same midpoint landing above the genitals.

The width of the ‘fashion’ proportioned figure can be between two & one-half heads, to two & one-third heads wide.

In the illustration below, which I have drawn to the ‘fashion’ standard of proportion, you can immediately see the heightened sense of grandeur in the figure’s physical appearance.  The “stretching-out” of the proportions by only 1/2 of a head has given our figure a much more impressive stature than was seen previously.

Take the time to look back through the previous 2 posts, and compare the proportions of the figures.  You can easily see that elongating the figure slightly makes it appear more attractive and impressive.  That being said, the ancient Greeks did one better than even the ‘fashion’ proportions of 8.5 heads tall…

In their statuary, one may find figures as tall as 9 heads, which we call  ‘heroic’ proportion.  It is this standard which we will be covered next posting,

See you in seven days.

Establishing a “Key Figure” part 2

The Idealistic Proportion

Last time, we discussed the principle of properly building a figure’s proportions based on naturalistic measurements.  The end result was noted as being fairly dumpy looking, and unimpressive as a figure.

To choose to elevate a subject into a representational form is a kind of expression of one’s values, and thus the choice of ‘naturalism’  is actually related to philosophical matters.

Consider the reasons an artist may choose to represent a figure naturalistically. One reason could be that the artist claims that the subject ‘really looks that way’. To record realism is a task for an historian or an objective reporter, and is better served that way.  Artistic representation must be more than an anecdotal record of history.

Another reason may be that the artist believes his job is to educate his viewers. Education is not the job of art either, as those ends are better served by science or through the consumption of written information.

Some artists believe that naturalistic representation is in service to exposing the misery of mankind, and thus seek to improve the lot of society by representation of natural reality.  This position depends on a value judgement, and thus changes art into a vehicle for transmitting a didactic moral purpose.  This is not the function of art, but of propaganda.

To choose to represent something in artwork is to display one’s values in a purely visual aesthetic manner.  The art represents the maker’s belief systems, and so displays his soul (for lack of a better word).  The choice represents ‘existence plus’, that is, how reality is -plus a bit more.  Perhaps one could say that good art demonstrates how reality could be in it’s most perfect incarnation.

This is the first observation as to why Idealized Proportions of measuring a human figure are used commonly in art.

The Idealistic Figure is 8 heads tall, with the middle point in the overall height falling just above the genitals and below the swell of the great trochanter of the femur bone (that is the the knob-like lateral projection at the proximal end of the femur).  The span of the shoulders from their widest points is 2 and 1/3 heads wide.

The measurement of 8 heads as a proportional size of the human is appropriate for most illustrations which seek to represent realism.  Any image displaying normal day-to-day people going about their business, some book illustrations and most adverts will all show the figure measured as 8 heads tall.

Most viewers who compare these proportions to the ‘naturalistic’ measurements used in the last posting will easily recognize how much more attractive the Idealistic Proportions appear to the eye.  That being said, this proportional measurement of 8 heads is not the final word on Establishing a Key Figure.  8 heads is only appropriate in some situations when drawing the human figure.

Artists who draw fashion illustrations, comic artists and even the sculptors of the Classical era use -and did use- greater proportional standards.  We will examine these proportions next week.

Thanks for reading, and I would like to wish you happy and accurate drawing.

Establishing a “key figure” Part 1

Greetings,

Today’s posting will combine some conceptual elements which Loomis has outlined in earlier sections of the book, with some rules which are better stated in his companion book “Figure Drawing for all its Worth” (which will be reviewed on this blog in time).  The concept Loomis is outlining is “Establishing a Key Figure”.  It is akin to his rule about setting up the relative heights between human figures standing in perspective.  The added element is exactly how does one properly determine a human figure’s height?

Before too much is stated, I want to  address some generic disputes which arise when discussion of humanity and attractiveness is considered.  In the following discussion, it is  considered that symmetry is more attractive then incongruence, and that upright, slightly elongated figures are more appealing to the eye, than are hunched and squat figures.  This model of beauty is defined by Classical aesthetics, and it has been the standard in the Western World for over 2000 years.  Contrary points of view are a derivative of the very recent movement of Post Modernism, and the full-frontal attack on Western Values.  Andrew Loomis does not consider Post Modern takes which subvert Classical definitions of beauty in favour of alternate positions.

Let us get underway by defining how one sets up the proper proportions of the human figure.

Many books outline the method of ‘measuring in heads’ to find out the attractive proportions with which to render a human figure.  Andrew Loomis uses the same method, but he adds many important considerations which are usually overlooked in other books.

Academic measurement of the human body is 7.5 heads tall.  This measurement is generally accepted as being true to reality, on average.  The particular height of a person is not altered by this measurement proportion method.  For instance, a 6 foot tall person and a 5 foot tall person could both be measured at being 7.5 heads tall, the difference being the head unit size would be larger on the taller person.

Furthermore, the average width of the figure is taken to be 2 heads wide.  This measurement is fully represented at the outer edge of the shoulder, as it turns down into the arm; basically in a line straight across the chest.

Here is a drawing I have done, measured at 7.5 heads tall.

The problem with this measurement of the figure is that, despite it being accurate to life, it produces a figure which appears rather stumpy, and unimpressive.  As far as illustration is concerned, the choice to represent an idealized version of humanity is preferable, rather than representing a naturalistic version of humanity.

The measurement of the idealized version of the figure will be explained in the next posting.

See you then.

Inclined Planes on a Roof

Good day,

It has been a very long while since my last posting.  I intend on posting again weekly on Sundays as before.

Let us get underway.

On page 57 of Successful Drawing, there is a very useful tip which Andrew Loomis gives his readers.  Any illustrator will encounter this problem, and unfortunately, very few know how to properly solve it.  This is the problem of how to draw the sloping pitch of a roof, in perspective.

First establish the horizon.

Since a single point perspective is a very unnatural point of view, you must now establish 2 Vanishing Points on the horizon line.  Below, I have added a red VP on the left and a green on on the right.

Third, use the Vanishing Points to establish the main walls and roof of your 2 point perspective structure.  In this case we will draw a simple barn.

Our fourth step is to locate the point on the facing side of the barn,  mid-way between the left and right walls, at the top.  From this point, draw a 90 degree vertical line up to the apex point of the roof line (drawn in the previous step).  This will help us establish the pitch of the roof correctly.

Fifth, draw two vertical lines through the left and right VPs, and make the lines rather long.  These lines are displayed in a a cyan colour in the image below.

The sixth step is to now draw lines for the pitch of the roof.  These lines are drawn from the near corner of the wall and where the roof will be, up diagonally through the apex point established in step 4.  Make a Vertical Vanishing Point (VVP) on the vertical line (cyan) where the new diagonal line crosses.

Seventh, draw a line back down from your newly established VVP, diagonally through the far corner of barn’s near wall.  Erase anything beyond where this line bisects the original roof line.  These new lines will be the correct pitch of the roof, in proper perspective.  Many artists do not know how to do this.

Step eight is to repeat the process for the opposite side of the roof.  Cast the horizontal lines downward this time to a VVP that is below the horizon line.    You can see below the orange lines show the pitch through the transparent house where the opposite roof would lay. It looks proper to our eyes.

Here is the barn with a simple amount of finish applied to the image, and a simplistic setting.  The construction lines remain to show the workings of the perspective.

Lastly, remove the construction lines for the finished image.  Although this is a very simple example, the theory holds true even when representing buildings of various type within a single image.

The tip Loomis gives us again uses the Vertical Vanishing Point method.  The VVP is an essential tool for establishing correct perspective.  We shall see it again.

Thank you for reading, and please check out the other internet media I am producing.

http://www.whiteknightsillustration.com  – my illustration website

Variable Perspectival Spaces within a Single Block

On page 43 of Successful Drawing, Andrew Loomis shows a very useful mechanic for artists to know in order to convincingly draw architectural details or features on mechanical objects in perspective.  This example demonstrates how to project a sequence of repeating sections, found within a whole, using a vertical and a horizontal scale. This is similar to previous lessons, but it expands the skill set so that the artist can draw repeating sections which are varied in sequence.  For example, imagine a condominium building in perspective.  The viewer can see the front of the building going off down the block.  This viewed side features a set of 4 windows, followed by  a portico with a double entryway in the middle, then another set of 4 windows.  Each of the openings of the windows need to be identical in size; but naturally, of a different dimension than the portico, which again is different than the two sets of double doors within.  This then is an example of Variable Perspective Space, Within a Single Block.

Let us begin.

Suppose you are an illustrator, and you are asked to draw the Egyptian temples at Abu Simbel.  Let us say that you are drawing the small temple, and you have (for whatever reason) a restriction as to the perspective you must use.  You search through the internet for reference, and let us say that there is nothing in the correct perspective which you need.  Short of traveling to Nubia, you cannot get a reference shot of the correct perspective.  This is how it is done.

Here is the small temple at Abu Simbel

1. Lay out the image in the angle you want, establishing the horizon and the perspective which you need to draw the site at.  This can be done with any angle of perspective that you wish.
2. At the wide edge, establish the vertical and horizontal planes which will be used as your measuring lines.  (see last posting for further use of the horizontal and vertical lines as measurement guides)
3. Mark the VP and a new point, called the Measuring Point, just to the left or the right of the vertical scale.  The MP can be on either side, but it must be close to the vertical line.
4. Now, looking at the reference shot of Abu Simbel, one can see that there are 5 different sections in the sequence of Variable Spaces.  They are as follows:
• Green Bracket: we will call these the FRAMES
• Red Bracket:  we will call these the NICHES
• White Bracket: we will call this the PORTICO
• Purple Bracket: we will call these the JAMBS
• Blue Bracket: we will call this the DOORWAY
5. Now, estimate the ratio of widths between the 5 spatial elements in the picture.  For simplicity, let us say that the Frames to Niches are a 1:2 ratio in width, and the Jambs to Frames are also 1:2.  (this means that the Niches are DOUBLE as wide as the Frames.  So too is the relationship between the Jambs to the Frames; the Frames are DOUBLE as wide as the Jambs).  Let us say the Jambs to the Doorway is 1:1.75.   Once you have established a ratio of the sizes by eye, decide upon a base unit for the Frames (since most of the ratios refer to these). We shall say the Frames are 2 cm.  Thus each section width is as follows:
• Frames: 2cm
• Niches: 4cm
• Portico: 3.75cm (two jambs + doorway)
• Jambs: 1cm
• Doorway: 1.75cm
6. Starting at the (0,0) point on the Vertical and Horizontal scale lines, lay out the measurements in the order that the sequence appears on the reference.  The full sequence is not measured in this example, in order to accommodate the size of the image, and readability.  In reality, one must layout the entire sequence on the horizontal Measuring Line.
7. Through the points on the Horizontal Measuring Line, cast new lines of measurement to the MP (Measuring Point)
8. The points where the cyan coloured Measuring Lines cross the bottom Perspectival Line will be the Variable Spaces on the monument, projected into perspective.  A secondary (red) line of perspective is cast to accommodate for the sloping nature of the temple’s face, i.e. it is not 90°.
9. Erase the guidelines and the new temple is drawn in the new perspective. Finish it to the level of detail that you desire.

In closing, I would like to apologize for not posting this on Sunday as per usual.  I hope you are able to use this technique of projecting Variable Spaces within a Single Block.  I also hope to see you next week.

Drawing To Scale

It is amazing how much information Andrew Loomis packs into each of the pages of his books.  His method of instruction is to constantly expand the uses of techniques outlined on previous pages.  In so doing, he also expands the learner’s set of drawing mechanics in a straightforward way.  For example, on page 39 of Successful Drawing, the method of depth by diagonal is elaborated upon, and here Loomis shows the reader how to use the technique in order to execute a scale drawing.  He says:

Every artist should know how to draw to a scale.  Scale drawings require the division of vertical and horizontal planes into square feet or square units.

Let us then examine the method.

1. We must first establish a vertical and horizontal measuring line, like an X and Y axis, where the lines touch at right angles at point zero.  Both lines must have equal division of unit, which represent feet in the drawing. The size of the unit which you use is done by eye.  A horizon line is established and the measuring lines are placed upon the scene.
2. From each of the ends of the measuring lines, and from point zero, lines are drawn to the VP.  Set the VP where you want by eye.
3. Now, a fourth Line of Perspective is cast to the VP, this time from the mid point (at the 5) of the vertical line.  This line is represented as a black and white dotted line in the example below.  We shall call this line the Halfway Line.
4. Next, gauge by eye the optional depth of the first foot of measurement along the low Line of Perspective going from the zero point to the VP.
5. When the first unit is established, cast a Line of Perspective from point one on the vertical scale (yellow checker in this sample), as well as a second vertical line at the point where the first unit terminates (red checker in this sample).  This first square unit will represent one foot.
6. Ascending diagonally from the  low near corner (point 0, 0), cast a diagonal measurement line (cyan coloured in this sample). Make sure it crosses exactly through the upper furthest corner of the first square foot.
7. Where this diagonal measurement line (cyan coloured) crosses the top Line of Perspective, draw another vertical down to the bottom Line of Perspective.  This is 10 feet deep into the image from point 0,0.  Cast Lines of Perspective (yellow here) from each remaining vertical measurement points to the VP.  Where the  diagonal (cyan coloured) measurement line crosses the many interior Lines of Perspective (yellow), additional vertical lines are drawn.  These represent 1 foot sections receding into the distance.
8. Next, draw horizontal lines on the horizontal plane, each at 90 degrees from every incremental foot measurement determined in step 7.  This divides the ground plane also into ten 1-foot sections in perspective.
9. As in last week’s posting, cast a descending diagonal line from the top near corner of the vertical plane, crossing through the far mid point delineated by the Halfway Line (black and white line) on the plane.  This shows where the next ten foot wide plane will terminate.
10. Draw the vertical for the twenty foot mark, and then diagonally bisect this new plane, from corner to corner (purple diagonal in this sample).  Where that diagonal line crosses the Halfway Line is the centre of the second vertical plane.
11. At the centre point where the newly drawn diagonal (purple diagonal in this) crosses the Halfway Line, draw a new vertical.  This will show the point of 15 feet in depth, as it is exactly between the 10 foot and 20 foot markers.
12. Repeat this process of descending diagonals from upper near corner through the Halfway Line, and ascending from corner to corner to determine as much depth as needed.  Each line that descends from top corner through the Halfway Line shows us 10 more feet in depth.
13. Now suppose we were asked to place these two men of different heights, on the field 20 feet away from each other.  Furthermore, we want to place two Greek columns of equal height also on the plain, 30 feet away from each other.  We want to place the tall black man beneath the near column, and the short white man 20 feet behind, and 9.5 feet over to the left of the black man .  The black man is 6 feet tall, the white man is 5 feet tall, and the columns are 10 feet tall.
14. With this method of Drawing to Scale, the task is simple.
15. Erase the guide lines and add some shadows, and the task is complete.  Notice how the short white man looks proportionately still like a short guy -even way back in the field.  Because the perspective is correct, and our Intelligent Perception is so fine tuned to seeing people in distances, we can tell he is a small man even though he is not standing directly beside any reference point.  This is the power of perspective.

Thank you for reading this week’s posting.  I hope you will subscribe and learn more about Andrew Loomis by keeping up with this blog.

A More Precise Method

Previously in Understanding Loomis, I have shown several ways of determining depth by diagonals.  The method explained today is another method of finding depth by diagonal, but this one is a more accurate method than those previously covered.  Today’s method should be used when the illustrator is seeking to draw to scale; i.e. when he must divide the vertical and horizontal planes into square units for measurement in perspective.  The previously outlined methods are fine when the illustrator is seeking to represent visually realistic perspective, but when mathematical precision is necessary -as in the cases of scale drawings-  a more precise method is needed.

Today’s post will explain the method of laying out the precise division of vertical planes.  How this is used in the creation of scale drawings will be covered in the next posting.

1. First establish the horizon and the V.P. for the first plane.  Cast perspective lines back from the VP to establish the height of the plane.  Determine height by eye.
2. Establish the First Unit depth also by eye. This establishes a Base Unit Plane, which will be cloned in perspective.  Next, cast a new line from the centre point on the nearest edge of the Base Unit Plane to the VP.  This will bisect the plane perfectly in half.  We shall call this new line the Middle Line.
3. When the first unit is established, it is cloned by using diagonals.  Create a Vertical Line by bisecting the horizon at the original VP.  Make certain to draw the Vertical Line long enough to accommodate the diagonals which you will draw in the next step.
4.  Cast the first diagonal (green in this example) from the near bottom corner through the far top corner to the Vertical Line (the pink line in this example).  At the place where the (green) diagonal line crosses the (pink) vertical, make a secondary VP
5. This step is where the method tightens up the measurement.  Cast a downward diagonal (yellow in this example) from the top near corner of the plane, through the point where the bisecting Middle Line (from step 2) crosses the midpoint on the far edge of the plane.  This line does not go corner to corner. Extend this downward diagonal far enough for it to meet the (pink) Vertical Line.  Mark a tertiary VP at the low crossing point.
6. Again, as in step 4, cast a new ascending  diagonal from the next bottom corner (where the next plane will be) up to the secondary VP marked on the Vertical Line in step 4.
7. Where the ascending diagonal (green) and the descending diagonal (yellow) both cross the original perspective lines (red), draw a vertical line to indicate the depth of the second plane.  This will be a more accurate representation of the First Unit Plane’s width in perspective, than that which was shown in previous postings.
8. Repeat the procedure by casting ascending lines corner to corner, and descending lines from corner through the Centre Line to establish the further planar depths.
9. Erase the guide lines to reveal the four planes receding into the distance, with more precise perspectival depth.

Conclusion

Readers will have noticed that with the introduction of a secondary guiding point, i.e. the bisecting Middle Line, the illusion of correct perspective is tightened.  For the sake of interest, compare the planes of today’s post with the divisions of depth created with the earlier methods in previous postings.  You will be able to see the subtle difference by eye, and how this method creates a more accurate representation of repeating planar depth in perspective.  This is especially true in the perspectival plane sections which are shown far off in distance.  The previous methods tend to shorten the depth incrementally, such that the distant planar sections become much too close together.

Next week, we will investigate how to use this method of depth by diagonal to set up for the creating of scale drawings.