The method of placing a shadow into perspective is an important skill to have as an illustrator.  There is a method which Andrew Loomis shows us in his book called Successful Drawing.  I will outline it here, following a short preamble.

When we look at an object on a plane, we see it in perspective, as it appears from our point of view-or our perspective.  The angles recede to a point on the horizon called the Vanishing Point, which always changes depending on where the viewer is situated.

The shadows cast by an object sitting on a plane will also have a vanishing point, but it is relative to the direction the light is being cast, as well as to the viewer’s point of view.  Working out the perspective the shadow takes, relative to the viewer is a factor of drawing the primary object into proper perspective- if you have done this, the P.O.V perspective of the object’s shadow will follow suit.  This is only the first consideration though, as stated above, the shadow also has to fall relative to the direction the light is being cast.

I will demonstrate Loomis’ method of solving this problem.

1. First, as will all drawing, one should set out the horizon line, and decide on the vanishing point, or points if the perspective is 2 point or more.  Here is a sample with 2 Vanishing Points, labeled V.P. below.
2. Once the VPs are set up, draw lines going to them, as per the shape you are drawing.  It is important to draw a geometric shape at this stage, then convert it to an organic shape later once the perspective is worked out, since it is easier to solve these issues geometrically.   Here I intend to draw a box shape.
3. Here is the box shape drawn in using the two VPs.
4. Now, once you have decided on the object’s perspective, it is time to decide on the next major piece of information which an illustrator needs, in order to create a convincing picture; the direction of light.  You should be aware that this stage is not regarding the angle the light is falling from, just whether it is coming from the left of the object or the right.  The angle is determined later.  For this image, I chose the light to be coming from behind-right. (NB. Last posting defined the direction terms Behind and Before as being relative to the viewer, not the subject matter.  If the light is behind the viewer, the direction line comes from below.)
5. Light travels in a straight line, so this direction line you set is very important; it will now show us where the VP of the shadow will be, relative to the light.  As stated before, the shadow’s perspective relative to you will be taken care of on account of the shape you have drawn already.  Whichever perspective that shape is in will define the POV perspective the shadow takes, as we will use the corners of the shape as reference points for the shadow.  When you cast the line the light is travelling at, the point where it crosses the horizon will be the VP of the shadow.  Bisect the horizon with a vertical line where the Shadow VP lays.
6. Once the vertical line bisecting the Shadow VP has been established, we can now determine the angle of the light.  The vertical drawn will act as our gauge to keep the angle constant.  Choose the most prominent corner of your subject matter, and at an angle of your choosing, cast a line which goes through the prominent corner, as well as through the vertical line you drew in step 5. This will be the primary angle of the light.
7. Since there are more than 1 corner which catch the falling light, we need to determine where that far, and hidden corner of the box would be.  This is done by again casting lines to the 2 original VPs we chose for the box.  Cast your lines to determine the back side of the box using the corners which you can see on the right and left.  I used the blue lines to demonstrate this below.
8. Once that is done, describe the back side of the box, using dotted lines, and make a note of where the corners are.
9. The second upper corner of the box, hidden by the side which faces you is also within the purview of the light which is falling.  You need to now account for the angle of the shadow it casts, using the first Angle of Light you decided upon.  At the crossing point of the Angle of Light and the vertical line which bisects the Shadow VP, draw up again, crossing through the new, hidden corner you just solved in step 8.  This will tell you how the shadow falls relative to that corner, and the angle of light.   This new angle line I have drawn below, it is the thinner of the two lines describing the Angle of Light.
10. Now, using the heretofore unmentioned bottom corners, cast lines from both the near and far corners, going to the Shadow VP.  These lines will give us the side edges of the cast shadow, and they are represented in dotted blue below.  The red Angle of Light lines show us where the shadow will end, in a straight line between the two crossing points of the 2 dotted blues, with the two reds.
11. Please note, I marked an X where the far corner of the shadow would appear (at the crossing point of dotted blue and the thin red Angle of light line).  You can see that the X is within the body of the subject matter, indicating that the back corner of the shadow cannot be perceived by a viewer standing at the perspective we chose for this object.  This is what I was meaning by saying that by properly drawing the subject matter in perspective will take care of the shadow’s P.O.V perspective.  Here is the X marked in the drawing below, with pink lines outlining the box’s shadow which such a perspective and angle of light would cast.  The far corner of the shadow  is behind the box.  The shadow extends from the bottom of the subject matter where it touches the plane.
12. Finally, remove the guidelines and fill in the shadow with a dark tone, relative to the brightness and quality of light you would like to represent.  I kept the angle of light lines active, so you can see how the corners of the shadow will meet them.

Thank you for reading this week’s posting.  Next week I will show you how to cast shadows in perspective from a light source which is Before the Viewer.

Best wishes.

# Cast Shadows: Behind and Before

When you are drawing shadows, there are a couple of rules which need to be remembered in order to create a natural looking illusion of light. Fortunately, Andrew Loomis helps us negotiate these points in his book Successful Drawing.

The first rule he indicates is an observation regarding the two location choices of light source when representing cast shadows; that is, a behind light source or a before light source. Behind and before are designations of where the light source is in relation to the viewer of the picture, not the subject.  Examine these samples I’ve drawn for you below.

In the picture of the Ogre below, the primary cast shadow on the ground plane shows us that the light source is behind you– the viewer of this picture.  The ogre’s actual body is interrupting the direction the light is falling, and hence, it casts a shadow behind.  Notice that cast shadows which are even somewhat to the side of the subject are still considered the result of a behind light source.

If the light source is behind, the shadow will fall behind.

(NB. In this drawing there happens to be two light sources, as you can see in the secondary small cast shadow under the ogre’s chin, and likewise below his hands.  For this matter, we are regarding only the large cast shadow on the ground.)

This drawing is considered to be a light source which is before the viewer.  One can tell on account of the fact that the shadow is falling between where we the viewers are, and the subject matter of the lady, as she sits on the plane.  One can imagine the sun above her, in the sky, before where you are standing, looking at this lady.  The sun before you, therefore constitutes a before light source.

If the light source is before, the shadow will fall between.

Now that the terms before and behind have been established, there are several rules about casting shadows from before and behind light.  Here are  Loomis’ rules about drawing cast shadows.

1. If the light source is behind the viewer, the angle of the light comes from below the horizon.
2. If the light source is before the viewer, the angle of light comes from above the horizon.
3. If the light source is before the viewer, put the shadow VP on the horizon nearby, below the light source.
4. When the light source is before the viewer, the angle of light is the nearest of the 3 cast shadow considerations;
• position of light source
• angle of light
• VP of shadow on the horizon
5. All shadows radiate from a point on the ground directly below the light source.  This point is the shadow vanishing point (SVP)
6. All shadows within a drawing recede to the same SVP.
7. The length of shadow on the ground plane is determined by the angle of light.

That is a lot to digest, so at this point, it may be of use to my readers to think on these concepts for a while, before diving into how one actually draws before and behind light source shadows.  Next week, I will demonstrate that process, as well as how to cast shadows of organic shapes, like those in my samples above.

Thank you very much for your continued interest.

Bye for now.

# Weird Tales, Pulp Comic

Greetings True Believers!

When last we met, I was about to attempt to complete a comic in 30 days: write, pencil and ink…

well it was too much for me.

I just wasn’t able to ink fast enough to make the bootcamp deadline.  That being said, while pushing through my first Pulp-themed comic, me and  my co-plotter Donovan LeClair, conceived of another story plot, in the same universe as Ingretta.

The idea we developed was so interesting, that I decided (in true Pulp fashion) that this first issue should be a double sized release, featuring 2 stories written back to back.  As the idea unfolded, my Bootcamp idea became more elaborate, and I essentially doubled the scope of my work.  This was FAR more than I could complete in 30 days.

Although I have produced full comics before this 30 day attempt,  I have never produced an inked comic.  Frankly, I underestimated how long the inking would take me, and I am wiser now.

I am unpleased that I couldn’t meet my own deadline, but I am also glad that the I.P. which I am developing now has expanded, and the new material is sure to please my Pulp readers!  For this update blog, I am going to show you some more Work In Progress pages from Trial of Ingretta, and reveal the title for the new back-up story : “Cull of the Dead Gods!” featuring the supernatural detective Kip Stirling.  The script is being written concurrent to the writing of this blog, and I’ll likely start the artwork by mid June.

Enjoy these pages of ‘Trial of Ingretta’, and overlook the parts where bits of my drawings are missing… it is work in progress…

# Bootcamp Comic

The Understanding Loomis blog is going to pause for the next 30 days.  Fortunately, regular blog entries are not going to be pausing though.

Today, I am embarking on a slightly different project which I will post about here, in order to keep track of the progress, and record the event.

I am taking on a project inspired by a series of Youtube videos produced by a man named David V. Stewart, and his colleague Matthew J. Wellman.

These men are authors of science fiction and fantasy, as well as deep fonts of knowledge and information regarding the aforementioned genres generally.  I have read one short selection from both authors, and the writing in both of their works is both engaging and well done. Their internet media content ranges from musings on Hollywood movies,  to technical considerations for writing novels, through political and philosophical commentaries, and even into music theory and practical instruction lessons.  They produce very intelligent Youtube videos as well as a podcast called “Writers of the Dawn”.

Their author sites on Amazon are here:

https://www.amazon.com/David-Stewart/e/B01H7K4GE6

https://www.amazon.com/Matthew-J-Wellman/e/B01LXA0A9P

In one of their presentations, they introduced a concept they called the “bootcamp” philosophy for writing a novel.  The idea is that given a constrained time frame, a person could be remarkably productive and achieve a single very large, set goal -despite the strain of working long hours.  The key of course being that the person acts rationally, and makes for themselves a schedule in which the goal is broken into manageable steps, constrained by time, and is something achievable relative to their abilities.

In this format, David V. Stewart was able to write a full novel, from conception to publishing in 30 days, which he did for National Write a Novel Month.

I became inspired greatly by these two authors, and have decided to complete a similar feat -to conceive of, script, pencil and ink a full comic in 30 days.  My wife suggested to not to try to do the lettering and colouring in that time frame, which after considering the rule of having the task be “achievable relative to one’s abilities”, I decided she was right.  I will colourize and letter it though, after the thirty days, then publish the comic.

In this blog, I will post the daily work I have done.  The script is original, and is called Strange Tales: The Trial of Ingretta.  It is going to be a pulp-style comic, set in 1928, with proto-nazi women warriors, ancient cities, prehistoric beasts and a giant ape who wears a crown of gold…  Here is page one!  Pencilled and inked by myself in one day.

This is Ingretta, and she and I are going to have a tough 30 days ahead.  Get to know her!!

# Establishing a ‘Key Figure’ part III

## Fashion Proportions

The previous two postings have been regarding how an illustrator sets up the proportional measurements of the human body by measuring the overall height in heads.  It was shown how using the “naturalistic” proportions of 7.5 heads -while true to life- produced an unappealing, dumpy figure.  The more attractive ‘idealized’ proportions of 8 heads stretched the figure out more, and the look became more attractive.  It was indicated that the ‘idealistic’ proportional measurements of 8 heads is used frequently in illustration.

Though the above statements are all true, domains do exist within the world of illustration where the aforementioned proportions will not suffice.  One such domain is fashion illustration, and another is comic book, or (more broadly considered) fantastic illustration.

The 8 head proportion method is only marginally stretched out from the ‘naturalistic’ proportions -indeed 8 heads tall is intended to appear natural to the viewer.  In fashion illustration or fantastic illustration, the artist is trying to render the human form as being ‘super’ i.e.  akin to superman.

The fantasy character or the fashion model needs to look even more exceptional as a specimen of anatomy than do figures in other general illustrations.  Therefore, the typical proportions used in these disciplines is 8.5 heads tall.

This change brings the halfway point of the figure’s height to be dropped down to the middle of the genitals, whereas in the previous proportion drawings show that same midpoint landing above the genitals.

The width of the ‘fashion’ proportioned figure can be between two & one-half heads, to two & one-third heads wide.

In the illustration below, which I have drawn to the ‘fashion’ standard of proportion, you can immediately see the heightened sense of grandeur in the figure’s physical appearance.  The “stretching-out” of the proportions by only 1/2 of a head has given our figure a much more impressive stature than was seen previously.

Take the time to look back through the previous 2 posts, and compare the proportions of the figures.  You can easily see that elongating the figure slightly makes it appear more attractive and impressive.  That being said, the ancient Greeks did one better than even the ‘fashion’ proportions of 8.5 heads tall…

In their statuary, one may find figures as tall as 9 heads, which we call  ‘heroic’ proportion.  It is this standard which we will be covered next posting,

See you in seven days.

# Establishing a “Key Figure” part 2

## The Idealistic Proportion

Last time, we discussed the principle of properly building a figure’s proportions based on naturalistic measurements.  The end result was noted as being fairly dumpy looking, and unimpressive as a figure.

To choose to elevate a subject into a representational form is a kind of expression of one’s values, and thus the choice of ‘naturalism’  is actually related to philosophical matters.

Consider the reasons an artist may choose to represent a figure naturalistically. One reason could be that the artist claims that the subject ‘really looks that way’. To record realism is a task for an historian or an objective reporter, and is better served that way.  Artistic representation must be more than an anecdotal record of history.

Another reason may be that the artist believes his job is to educate his viewers. Education is not the job of art either, as those ends are better served by science or through the consumption of written information.

Some artists believe that naturalistic representation is in service to exposing the misery of mankind, and thus seek to improve the lot of society by representation of natural reality.  This position depends on a value judgement, and thus changes art into a vehicle for transmitting a didactic moral purpose.  This is not the function of art, but of propaganda.

To choose to represent something in artwork is to display one’s values in a purely visual aesthetic manner.  The art represents the maker’s belief systems, and so displays his soul (for lack of a better word).  The choice represents ‘existence plus’, that is, how reality is -plus a bit more.  Perhaps one could say that good art demonstrates how reality could be in it’s most perfect incarnation.

This is the first observation as to why Idealized Proportions of measuring a human figure are used commonly in art.

The Idealistic Figure is 8 heads tall, with the middle point in the overall height falling just above the genitals and below the swell of the great trochanter of the femur bone (that is the the knob-like lateral projection at the proximal end of the femur).  The span of the shoulders from their widest points is 2 and 1/3 heads wide.

The measurement of 8 heads as a proportional size of the human is appropriate for most illustrations which seek to represent realism.  Any image displaying normal day-to-day people going about their business, some book illustrations and most adverts will all show the figure measured as 8 heads tall.

Most viewers who compare these proportions to the ‘naturalistic’ measurements used in the last posting will easily recognize how much more attractive the Idealistic Proportions appear to the eye.  That being said, this proportional measurement of 8 heads is not the final word on Establishing a Key Figure.  8 heads is only appropriate in some situations when drawing the human figure.

Artists who draw fashion illustrations, comic artists and even the sculptors of the Classical era use -and did use- greater proportional standards.  We will examine these proportions next week.

Thanks for reading, and I would like to wish you happy and accurate drawing.

# Variable Perspectival Spaces within a Single Block

On page 43 of Successful Drawing, Andrew Loomis shows a very useful mechanic for artists to know in order to convincingly draw architectural details or features on mechanical objects in perspective.  This example demonstrates how to project a sequence of repeating sections, found within a whole, using a vertical and a horizontal scale. This is similar to previous lessons, but it expands the skill set so that the artist can draw repeating sections which are varied in sequence.  For example, imagine a condominium building in perspective.  The viewer can see the front of the building going off down the block.  This viewed side features a set of 4 windows, followed by  a portico with a double entryway in the middle, then another set of 4 windows.  Each of the openings of the windows need to be identical in size; but naturally, of a different dimension than the portico, which again is different than the two sets of double doors within.  This then is an example of Variable Perspective Space, Within a Single Block.

Let us begin.

Suppose you are an illustrator, and you are asked to draw the Egyptian temples at Abu Simbel.  Let us say that you are drawing the small temple, and you have (for whatever reason) a restriction as to the perspective you must use.  You search through the internet for reference, and let us say that there is nothing in the correct perspective which you need.  Short of traveling to Nubia, you cannot get a reference shot of the correct perspective.  This is how it is done.

Here is the small temple at Abu Simbel

1. Lay out the image in the angle you want, establishing the horizon and the perspective which you need to draw the site at.  This can be done with any angle of perspective that you wish.
2. At the wide edge, establish the vertical and horizontal planes which will be used as your measuring lines.  (see last posting for further use of the horizontal and vertical lines as measurement guides)
3. Mark the VP and a new point, called the Measuring Point, just to the left or the right of the vertical scale.  The MP can be on either side, but it must be close to the vertical line.
4. Now, looking at the reference shot of Abu Simbel, one can see that there are 5 different sections in the sequence of Variable Spaces.  They are as follows:
• Green Bracket: we will call these the FRAMES
• Red Bracket:  we will call these the NICHES
• White Bracket: we will call this the PORTICO
• Purple Bracket: we will call these the JAMBS
• Blue Bracket: we will call this the DOORWAY
5. Now, estimate the ratio of widths between the 5 spatial elements in the picture.  For simplicity, let us say that the Frames to Niches are a 1:2 ratio in width, and the Jambs to Frames are also 1:2.  (this means that the Niches are DOUBLE as wide as the Frames.  So too is the relationship between the Jambs to the Frames; the Frames are DOUBLE as wide as the Jambs).  Let us say the Jambs to the Doorway is 1:1.75.   Once you have established a ratio of the sizes by eye, decide upon a base unit for the Frames (since most of the ratios refer to these). We shall say the Frames are 2 cm.  Thus each section width is as follows:
• Frames: 2cm
• Niches: 4cm
• Portico: 3.75cm (two jambs + doorway)
• Jambs: 1cm
• Doorway: 1.75cm
6. Starting at the (0,0) point on the Vertical and Horizontal scale lines, lay out the measurements in the order that the sequence appears on the reference.  The full sequence is not measured in this example, in order to accommodate the size of the image, and readability.  In reality, one must layout the entire sequence on the horizontal Measuring Line.
7. Through the points on the Horizontal Measuring Line, cast new lines of measurement to the MP (Measuring Point)
8. The points where the cyan coloured Measuring Lines cross the bottom Perspectival Line will be the Variable Spaces on the monument, projected into perspective.  A secondary (red) line of perspective is cast to accommodate for the sloping nature of the temple’s face, i.e. it is not 90°.
9. Erase the guidelines and the new temple is drawn in the new perspective. Finish it to the level of detail that you desire.

In closing, I would like to apologize for not posting this on Sunday as per usual.  I hope you are able to use this technique of projecting Variable Spaces within a Single Block.  I also hope to see you next week.

# Drawing To Scale

It is amazing how much information Andrew Loomis packs into each of the pages of his books.  His method of instruction is to constantly expand the uses of techniques outlined on previous pages.  In so doing, he also expands the learner’s set of drawing mechanics in a straightforward way.  For example, on page 39 of Successful Drawing, the method of depth by diagonal is elaborated upon, and here Loomis shows the reader how to use the technique in order to execute a scale drawing.  He says:

Every artist should know how to draw to a scale.  Scale drawings require the division of vertical and horizontal planes into square feet or square units.

Let us then examine the method.

1. We must first establish a vertical and horizontal measuring line, like an X and Y axis, where the lines touch at right angles at point zero.  Both lines must have equal division of unit, which represent feet in the drawing. The size of the unit which you use is done by eye.  A horizon line is established and the measuring lines are placed upon the scene.
2. From each of the ends of the measuring lines, and from point zero, lines are drawn to the VP.  Set the VP where you want by eye.
3. Now, a fourth Line of Perspective is cast to the VP, this time from the mid point (at the 5) of the vertical line.  This line is represented as a black and white dotted line in the example below.  We shall call this line the Halfway Line.
4. Next, gauge by eye the optional depth of the first foot of measurement along the low Line of Perspective going from the zero point to the VP.
5. When the first unit is established, cast a Line of Perspective from point one on the vertical scale (yellow checker in this sample), as well as a second vertical line at the point where the first unit terminates (red checker in this sample).  This first square unit will represent one foot.
6. Ascending diagonally from the  low near corner (point 0, 0), cast a diagonal measurement line (cyan coloured in this sample). Make sure it crosses exactly through the upper furthest corner of the first square foot.
7. Where this diagonal measurement line (cyan coloured) crosses the top Line of Perspective, draw another vertical down to the bottom Line of Perspective.  This is 10 feet deep into the image from point 0,0.  Cast Lines of Perspective (yellow here) from each remaining vertical measurement points to the VP.  Where the  diagonal (cyan coloured) measurement line crosses the many interior Lines of Perspective (yellow), additional vertical lines are drawn.  These represent 1 foot sections receding into the distance.
8. Next, draw horizontal lines on the horizontal plane, each at 90 degrees from every incremental foot measurement determined in step 7.  This divides the ground plane also into ten 1-foot sections in perspective.
9. As in last week’s posting, cast a descending diagonal line from the top near corner of the vertical plane, crossing through the far mid point delineated by the Halfway Line (black and white line) on the plane.  This shows where the next ten foot wide plane will terminate.
10. Draw the vertical for the twenty foot mark, and then diagonally bisect this new plane, from corner to corner (purple diagonal in this sample).  Where that diagonal line crosses the Halfway Line is the centre of the second vertical plane.
11. At the centre point where the newly drawn diagonal (purple diagonal in this) crosses the Halfway Line, draw a new vertical.  This will show the point of 15 feet in depth, as it is exactly between the 10 foot and 20 foot markers.
12. Repeat this process of descending diagonals from upper near corner through the Halfway Line, and ascending from corner to corner to determine as much depth as needed.  Each line that descends from top corner through the Halfway Line shows us 10 more feet in depth.
13. Now suppose we were asked to place these two men of different heights, on the field 20 feet away from each other.  Furthermore, we want to place two Greek columns of equal height also on the plain, 30 feet away from each other.  We want to place the tall black man beneath the near column, and the short white man 20 feet behind, and 9.5 feet over to the left of the black man .  The black man is 6 feet tall, the white man is 5 feet tall, and the columns are 10 feet tall.
14. With this method of Drawing to Scale, the task is simple.
15. Erase the guide lines and add some shadows, and the task is complete.  Notice how the short white man looks proportionately still like a short guy -even way back in the field.  Because the perspective is correct, and our Intelligent Perception is so fine tuned to seeing people in distances, we can tell he is a small man even though he is not standing directly beside any reference point.  This is the power of perspective.

Thank you for reading this week’s posting.  I hope you will subscribe and learn more about Andrew Loomis by keeping up with this blog.